There are a number of successful treatments, which include psychological and biological treatments. Approximately 1% of Canadian men and 2% of Canadian women are clinically depressed at any point in time and about 5% of men and 10% of women will experience clinical depression at some point in their life. Canadian Psychological Association 141 Laurier Avenue West, Suite 702 Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5J3 ISBN # 978-1-926793-09-2 October 2013 This report was prepared by Dr. John Hunsley, Ms. Katherine Elliot and Ms. Zoé Therrien, School of Psychology, University of Ottawa. It involves teaching people to remember times when the individual was younger and functioned at a higher level than as a depressed older adult. Run for Women Poll (2016). These symptoms also identify depression in older adults. Provincial and territorial associations of psychology also often maintain referral services; for this information go to This fact sheet was prepared for the Canadian Psychological Association by Dr. Keith Dobson, Department of Psychology, University of Calgary. ... experienced serious psychological distress, major depression or suicidal thoughts, and more attempted suicide,” said lead author Jean Twenge, PhD, author of the book “iGen” and professor of psychology at San Diego State University. Canada's Leading Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy. NATIONAL GUIDELINES FOR SENIORS’ MENTAL HEALTH The Assessment and Treatment of Depression MAY 2006 CANADIAN COALITION FOR SENIORS’ MENTAL HEALTH Several psychological treatments for depression used with young and middle-aged adults are also effective with older adults. mood disorder that will affect one in eight Canadians at some point in their lives Les Greenberg (Leslie Samuel Greenberg) (born 30 September 1945) is a Canadian psychologist born in Johannesburg, South Africa, and is one of the originators and primary developers of Emotion-Focused … These treatments have some evidence to support their use although they are not as well-established as the first three treatments. Depression should not be seen as the unavoidable fate of older age. Factors such as loss of control and independence as the result of illness and/or disability, loneliness, and lack of social support can also lead to depression in older age. In its extreme form Clinical depression can be life threatening and may require hospitalization. Educate those around you to the facts about depression. 141 Laurier Avenue West, Suite 702 Its … Further, long-term and more severe depression is associated with increased risk of suicide, so timely intervention from a qualified and professional health care provider is recommended. Founded in 1918, The Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA) is a national charity that helps maintain and improve mental health for all Canadians. Finally, some medical conditions and the effects of some medications can either look like, or induce, a depressive episode. These efforts have resulted in a number of treatments with evidence to support them. The most common framework is called the Biopsychosocial model, which incorporates biological, psychological and social categories of risk. Please contact us with any questions or comments about this or any of the Psychology Works Fact Sheets:, Canadian Psychological Association In summary, depression is a disabling and potentially chronic disorder. The grieving process is natural and unique to each individual and shares some of the same features of depression. Professionally developed tests should adhere to internationally recognized standards, including the “Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing” published by the American Psychological Association (APA) and its partners in the educational domain. Given the large number of people who experience depression and its profound negative effects, psychologists have devoted considerable effort to study depression and develop effective treatments. (2016). Behaviour therapy also teaches strategies to cope with personal problems and new behaviour patterns and activities. Disclaimer: This guide is intended for information purposes only and is not intended to be interpreted or used as a standard of medical practice. Although the evidence is somewhat inconsistent at present, it does not appear that combining drug and psychological treatments significantly enhances the success of either of these treatments alone. It is also worth noting that psychological treatments that focus on relapse prevention have been developed and tested. Other risk factors include having a parent who has been clinically depressed, physical illness or ongoing disability, the death or separation of parents, major negative life events (in particular, events related to interpersonal loss or failure), pervasive negative thinking, physical or emotional deprivation, and previous episodes of depression. 37 Shoppers LOVE. Reminiscence therapy helps individuals with depression re-evaluate personal memories in order to rediscover a sense of worth and life coherence and meaning. It is estimated that one in 10 Canadians is affected by them. On the one hand, the rate of major depression in older adults is relatively low, touching 3-5% of older adults aged 65 and over living in the community. According to the American Psychological Association, about 10 to 15 percent of U.S. women have a depressive episode within three months of … By treating depression as well as other specific problems with psychological treatments, more people are kept out of inpatient care, due to a lower drop-out rate from treatment (Canadian Psychological Association… These standards are endorsed by the Canadian Psychological Association. While it can suddenly go into remission, depression is not something that people can “get over” by their own effort.Some forms of depression may develop under unique circumstances: 1. … Depression is more than just sadness. Symptoms typically manifested by older adults suffering from depression include loss of energy, decreased interest and pleasure in usual activities, pain and somatic complaints, and complaints of memory problems. Explore information about depression (also known as depressive disorder or clinical depression), including signs and symptoms, treatment, research and statistics, and clinical trials. Many of these treatments emphasize one or more of the recognized risk factors discussed above. Further research on the costs and benefits of combined treatments is needed. Daily, half a million Canadians are absent from work due to mental health problems, costing the Canadian … There is also evidence that cognitive therapy in particular reduces the risk of relapse relative to those individuals who are treated with drug therapy. Those experiencing loss often might describe themselves as being “depressed.”But being sad is not the same as having depression. Cognitive Behavioral Insomnia Therapy (CBT-I) with those with Depression: A Case Formulation Approach Colleen E. Carney, PhD, CPsych March 7, 2020 10:00 am to 5:00 pm 6 CEU … These rates of depression are fairly consistent in various countries around the world. People with depression may experience a lack of interest and pleasure in daily activities, significant weight loss or gain, insomnia or excessive sleeping, lack of energy, inability to concentrate, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide. Assessment and Treatment of Depression. Cognitive therapy is the most well-studied psychological treatment for depression and has the most consistent evidence to support its use. Depression can be hard to detect in older adults for several reasons. Clinical depression (also called Major Depressive Disorder or MDD) is a more serious condition that is confirmed by the presence of at least five symptoms for at least a two week period. Unfortunately, there is no clear way to know in advance to which treatment any one person with depression will respond. Registered psychologists are regulated health professionals across Canada, and are required to meet educational, ethical and legal standards. (2019, March 13). Scheduled exercise can also be used to treat depression. It is the policy of the Canadian Psychological Association to review each fact sheet every 5 years after publication or last review. Additional Resources. In conclusion, dietary intake of Mg was inversely associated with depression and anxiety. Women may face an increased time of risk after childbirth. The Canadian Mental Health Association and the Mental Health Commission of Canada collaborated to create the Takeaways Toolkit. Although the causes of clinical depression are complex and vary from individual to individual,  a variety of factors increase the risk of a person experiencing clinical depression. People may feel like their thoughts are racing and may feel hyperactive. The Canadian Psychological Association is partnering with the American Psychological Association to publish the following three journals: Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, and Canadian Psychology. Major depression may also occur after experiencing a cerebrovascular accident (stroke). Major Depressive Disorder is also distinguished from Manic Depression (also called Bipolar Disorder) in that in MDD the individual only experiences periods of depression, and potentially returns to normal functioning in between times. Women are at about twice the risk of men to experience clinical depression. Each CPG is developed by an expert CPA working … The CCPA National Office has closed its physical premises; however, CCPA staff are equipped to work from home. Depression medications have evolved. American Psychological Association. Biological treatments also exist for the treatment of clinical depression. Interpersonal therapy has a success rate that is comparable to behaviour therapy and cognitive therapy. Psychological treatments can be particular useful for people who are unable to, or unwilling, to take antidepressant medications. Searching for answers: How well do depression websites answer the public’s questions about treatment choices?. Major depression in Canada: what has changed over the past 10 years? The Great Depression of the early 1930s was a worldwide social and economic shock. In Bipolar Disorder, however, the individual will cycle between depression and periods of hypomania or full manic problems (euphoria, high energy, lots of activity). Dobson has served as the president of the Academy of Cognitive Therapy, Canadian Psychological Association, International Association for Cognitive Psychotherapy and the British Columbia Psychological Association. Older adults are often reluctant to admit to psychological symptoms or difficulties and are more likely to communicate their psychological distress by complaining of physical symptoms. By the time Canadians reach 40 years of age, 1 in 2 have—or have had—a mental illness.1 Several symptoms of depression (e.g. Depression and anxiety are the most prevalent mental health problems in Canada. Ottawa, Ontario    K1P 5J3 Models of clinical depression now often include both risk and resilience factors. Mood Disorders Society of Canada; Canadian Psychological Association; Canadian Psychiatric Association; Canadian Mental Health Association Depression is much more than simple unhappiness.Clinical depression, sometimes called major depression, is a complex mood disorder caused by various factors, including genetic predisposition, personality, stress and brain chemistry. Founded in 1979, the Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA) is an international nonprofit organization dedicated to the prevention, treatment, and cure of anxiety, depression, OCD, PTSD, and co-occurring disorders through education, practice, and research. However, some of the drug therapies may be effectively combined with psychological treatments which provide for longer term change. Cognitive therapy involves the recognition of negative thinking patterns in depression and correcting these patterns though various “cognitive restructuring” exercises. Reminiscence therapy is a treatment that has been developed for older adults with depression. Between 2009 and 2017, rates of depression among those ages 14 to 17 increased by more than 60%, according to a study published in the Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Psychology Definition of CANADIAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (CPA): n. the primary organization which represents all psychologists practicing their profession all over Canada. Revised: January 2017 Your opinion matters! They may feel unrealistically confident, happy, or very powerful. The Canadian Psychiatric Association (CPA) has published Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) on anxiety disorders, schizophrenia and depressive disorders. This analysis examines sex differences in the association between cannabis use and major depressive episode (MDE), suicidal thoughts and attempts, and psychological distress. CPA is also the voice of psychology internationally, and represents the discipline to the International Union of Psychological Science and the World Health Organization. 99–101 of this guideline for a statement on conflicts of interest as well as p. 108 for acknowledgments. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 50: 195-202. Assessing the methodological quality of the Canadian Psychiatric Association's anxiety and depression clinical practice guidelines Women are at about twice the risk of men to experience clinical depression. Interpersonal therapy teaches the individual to become aware of interpersonal patterns and to improve these patterns through a series of interventions. Consistent evidence reveals that a regular routine (about 3 or more times a week, at about 30 minutes each time) of at least moderate aerobic exercise is associated with reductions in depression. Depression amplifies the functional disabilities produced by physical illness, interferes with treatment and rehabilitation, and further contributes to decline in physical and cognitive functioning. Toll free (in Canada):  1-888-472-0657, Recruit Research Participants Portal (R2P2), Corona Virus – COVID-19 Public Resources & Member Messages,,, “Psychology Works” Fact Sheet: Perinatal Anxiety, “Psychology Works” Fact Sheet: Chronic Pain Among Seniors. The COVID-19 pandemic will likely result in a large increase in the incidence and prevalence of anxiety and depression and experts are already warning of an “echo pandemic” of mental health … The possible symptoms of Clinical depression include sadness, loss of interest in usual activities, changes in appetite, changes in sleep, changes in sexual desire, difficulties in concentration, a decrease in activities or social withdrawal, increased self-criticism or reproach, and thoughts of, or actual plans related to suicide. CPA ... Depression … The fastest way to reach a CCPA staff member is to send email messages. Any such document that has been published more than 5 years ago and … It can look quite different from person to person. Cognitive therapy also uses behaviour change strategies, and is also sometimes referred to as “cognitive- behavioral therapy”. However, such findings were not seen for psychological distress. Mania is an unusually high mood for the person. Some subgroups of older adults present a higher risk for depression, in particular individuals afflicted by chronic disease, older adults living in long-term care and nursing homes, and those providing care for a family member (e.g., to a partner suffering from dementia). Short-term psychodynamic therapy is a treatment which focuses on the identification of core conflictual themes in the way a person thinks about themselves or their interpersonal relations, some of which may be unconscious. Its objectives are to improve the health and welfare of all Canadians; to promote excellence and innovation in psychological … Other psychological treatments exist in addition to the above treatments, and have promise in treating depression. For the names and coordinates of provincial and territorial associations of psychology, go to Interpersonal therapy helps the depressed person cope with current stresses and challenges in interpersonal relationships – in particular in the context of conflicts, grief and bereavement, changes in roles, and social support. Clinical depression may vary in its severity and its duration. It is also increasingly recognized that some factors can increase resilience or reduce the risk of depression, such as regular activity, sound sleep, positive social relationships. Still a number of seniors experience depression. In particular, cognitive behaviour therapy, interpersonal therapy, problem- solving therapy and reminiscence therapy are treatments whose efficacy is supported by empirical research. This fact sheet was prepared for the Canadian Psychological Association by Dr. Keith Dobson, Department of Psychology, University of Calgary. It is normal for feelings of sadness or grief to develop in response to such situations. Background: Research on the relationship between insomnia and nightmares, and suicidal ideation (SI) has produced variable findings, especially with regard to military samples. Online survey conducted by Environics Research. Depression, also known as clinical or major depression, is a mood disorder that will affect one in eight Canadians at some point in their lives. Become a Member × The health and safety of CCPA staff is a high priority during this difficult and uncertain time. You can sign up for an email alert that will notify you about the release of each issue of any of CPA’s journals. On the one hand, there is a wide financial cost to depression. Online resource providing self-help information, community programs and workshops, for individuals, educators, health professionals and care providers on anxiety, anxiety disorders including panic attacks, OCD, PTSD, GAD and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Dysthymia is recognized when three of the symptoms listed above are present for at least two years. ... territorial and Canadian … The established psychological treatments for clinical depression are roughly as successful as pharmacotherapy for depression. Depression Symptoms in Canadian Psychology Graduate Students: Do Research Productivity, Funding, and the Academic Advisory Relationship Play a Role? The primary treatment for depression or anxiety is psychological counseling, also called “talk therapy” or psychotherapy. The Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) is the primary organization representing psychologists throughout Canada.It was organized in 1939 and incorporated under the Canada Corporations Act, Part II, in May 1950. Evidence suggests that the efficacy of this therapy approach is comparable to other established treatments for depression, although less research exists to make firm conclusions. These symptoms also identify depression in older adults. Almost everyone feels sad or “depressed” at certain times. Please contact us with any questions or comments about any of the Psychology Works Fact Sheets:, Recruit Research Participants Portal (R2P2), Corona Virus – COVID-19 Public Resources & Member Messages,, COVID-19 Worsening Canadians’ Access to Psychologists, “Psychology Works” Fact Sheet: Climate Change and Anxiety. These treatments include drug therapies, electroconvulsive therapy and light therapy (the latter for people who suffer Winter-time Seasonal Depression, also called Seasonal Affective Disorder; SAD). Depression constitutes the most important factor associated with risk of suicide in old age. Whereas Clinical depression is a more severe form of depression which can be fairly time-limited, Dysthymic Disorder (also called Dysthymia) is a less-severe, but more chronic type of depression. In the depressive phase of bipolar disorder, symptoms of clinical depression (or Major Depressive Episode) need to be present for at least two weeks and are similar to symptoms of unipolar depression (see the Canadian Psychological Association’s … Depression increases the risk of death in older adults by 2 to 3 times. Participants included psychology graduate students from across Canada (N 292; 87% … Please refer to pp. Each CPG is developed by an expert CPA working group, and reviewed and approved by the CPA’s Board of Directors. The CPA has continued to monitor the ongoing issues related to the COVID-19 situation in Canada and abroad, … Your opinion matters! The Canadian Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology also has a list of providers and can be reached at In fact, in a recent report prepared for the Canadian Psychological Association, researchers reviewed numerous studies of bipolar disorder treatment and found that when psychotherapy is used in … American Psychiatric Association (APA) practice guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations for the assessment and treatment of psychiatric disorders.